G-FIND Tracking Module

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Definitions for terms used in G-FINDER 

 
Term used in G-FINDER Definition
Contraceptive An instrument, apparatus, appliance, device, drug or combination intended to be used specifically to prevent pregnancy.
Ultra-short/immediate- acting contraceptive drug
On-demand contraceptive drug that requires action at the time of intercourse for efficacy (e.g. emergency contraception).
Short-acting contraceptive drug
Contraceptive drug that works for <1 year but does not require action at the time of intercourse (e.g. injectable hormones).
Long-acting contraceptive drug
Contraceptive drug that works for >1 year.
Permanent contraceptive
Irreversible contraceptive method.
Contraceptive device
An instrument, apparatus, appliance, implant or other similar or related article intended to be used to control contraception (e.g. condoms or diaphragms).
Combination contraceptive
A product that combines a platform technology or contraceptive device with one or more contraceptive drug/s (e.g. a contraceptive vaginal ring).
G-7 Includes seven highly industrialised nations. Members are France, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, Japan, United States and Canada.
G-20 Includes developed countries and emerging economies. Members are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Republic of Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States. Also includes the European Union.
High-income country In 2016 the World Bank classified as high-income those countries with a 2015 gross national income (GNI) per capita of $12,476 or more. See here for further details.
Innovative developing country (IDC) Includes developing countries with a strong R&D base, which in the context of G-FINDER this refers to Brazil, India and South Africa.
Low-income country In 2016 the World Bank classified as low-income those countries with a 2015 GNI per capita of $1,025 or less See here for further details.
Middle-income country In 2016 the World Bank classified those countries with a 2015 GNI per capita of $1,026 - $4,035 as lower middle-income; and $4,036 - $12,475 as upper middle-income.  See here for further details.
Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) A product that combines a platform technology or contraceptive device with one or more drug/s, and addresses two or more reproductive health indications (e.g. an intravaginal contraceptive ring that also provides protection against HIV).
Neglected disease For the purposes of the G-FINDER survey, the term neglected disease refers to diseases that disproportionately affect developing countries, for which new health technologies are needed, and for which there is insufficient commercial market to incentivise private sector R&D investment in developing-country specific product development. For further detail about the diseases included in our survey, please see Neglected diseases included in G-FINDER.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) The OECD includes Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Latvia, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States.
Post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) Blood loss of 500ml or more within 24 hours after birth, resulting from failure of the uterus to contract adequately, genital tract trauma (i.e. vaginal or cervical lacerations), uterine rupture, retained placental tissue or maternal bleeding disorders.
Reproductive health area For the purposes of the G-FINDER survey, the term reproductive health area refers to the subset of reproductive health R&D that is directed at developing country needs, where a product gap exists because there is no developed country market to stimulate R&D. 
Like the G-FINDER neglected diseases survey, only health technology products (e.g. drugs, contraceptive devices) are included; health innovations such as surgical procedures are excluded. For further detail about the reproductive health areas included in our survey, please see Reproductive health areas included in G-FINDER.
Self-funding Refers to funding that originates within an organisation for R&D activities carried out by that organisation; also referred to as intramural funding and internal funding.
Sexually transmitted infection (STI) Any of a group of bacterial, fungal, viral infections and parasites that are transmitted during sexual activity.
Type of organisation The nature of the organisation and the work it carries out.
Academic and other research institutions
Organisations funded by, affiliated with and/or managed by universities or other academic organisations (e.g. Institut Pasteur, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA)).
Aggregate pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies
Aggregate pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, including multinational pharmaceutical companies (MNCs) and small pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies (SMEs). See below.
Government research institutions
Organisations which are funded and/or managed by governments or government agencies (e.g. French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (Inserm), Swiss Tropical & Public Health Institute (TPH), Statens Serum Institute).
Multinational pharmaceutical companies (MNCs)
Pharmaceutical companies with revenues of over $10bn per annum which are privately owned or publicly traded, and conduct their business in many countries (e.g. Pfizer, GSK, Novartis). 

Non-for-profit philanthropic foundations, trusts, NGOs, and corporate donors
Not-for-profit foundations, trusts, corporations, and individuals (e.g. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, Rockefeller Foundation), non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and corporate donors.
Other intermediary
Other or non-PDP intermediary organisations which receive funds and disburse them to external product developers but do not engage in partnerships or actively manage R&D projects.
Product development partnership (PDP)
Although there is no single universally-accepted definition of PDPs, they are typically public health driven, not-for-profit intermediary organisations that use private sector management practices to drive product development in conjunction with external partners. Some PDPs focus on a single disease or product type, while others work across multiple diseases and products, but all share a common goal to develop products that are suitable for developing country use in areas of market failure. While their primary aim is the advancement of public health rather than commercial gain, PDPs generally use industry practices in their R&D activities, for instance portfolio management and industrial project management. Additionally, many PDPs conduct global advocacy to raise awareness of their targeted neglected diseases.
Public sector government
Governments or government agencies and branches (e.g. the UK Department for International Development (DFID), the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the Brazilian Ministry of Health). Also includes the European Commission. Note: this category is distinct from Government research institutions.
Public sector multilaterals
International organisations that are funded by contributions from member state governments (e.g. the World Bank, and United Nations agencies such as the World Health Organization).
Public sector pharmaceutical companies
Pharmaceutical companies that are funded by, located within and/or managed by governments or government agencies (e.g. FIOCRUZ).

Small and medium pharmaceutical or biotechnology companies (SMEs)
Pharmaceutical or biotechnology companies with revenues of less than $10b per annum, which are privately owned or publicly traded, and conduct the majority of their business in one country  (e.g. Biological E, Atomo Diagnostics, Mapp Biopharmaceutical).
Other
Organisations which do not fit any of the above definitions